VESSEL STRUCTURE. TYPES AND PURPOSE OF VESSELS
This article was taken from tr.carolchanning.net.
On ships, rivers and seas have been known for more than five thousand years of Movement. Currently, according to the generally accepted terminology, an offshore vessel-a cargo, passenger or commercial large-scale marine vessels, ship-military. Enumerations of the types of vessels and marine vehicles that can be long. The most famous sea-these sailboats and yachts, cruise ships and ships, boats, tankers and bulk cargo vessels. Ships-aircraft carriers, battleships, cruisers, destroyers and submarines.
Structure of the vessel
If there are any types or classes, there are common design elements. First of all, of course, the boat where the superstructures, Poles and fellings of various objectives are installed. An important element of all vessels are engines and itters, which are generally power plants. For the life of a boat, equipment, systems, electrical equipment, pipelines and equipments of the facilities are important.
Sailboats are equipped with a spar and rigging.
The Buruna is called anterior, stern is the rear ends of the body, side surfaces are the sides. The right side of the movement ships is called the Sturboard, the left-tank.
The bottom or bottom is called the lower part of the ship. Deck-Horizontal overlapping. The ship's holder is the lowest room between the lower and lower decks. An using Interdeck area is called a Twindek.
Hull design of the ship
If we talk about the ship, the Military or a civilian vessel, then a hollow shape in the body, is a waterproof body. The boat provides the ship's flotation feature and is the base or platform on which the equipment or weapon is mounted, depending on the purpose of the vessel.
The type of vessel determines both the shape and dimensions of the body.
The hull of the vessel consists of a set and a coating. The bulkheads and decks are the elements inherent in certain types of vessels.
Today, as in the old age, wood veneer can be produced as welded or riveted steel sheets or even reinforced concrete.
To preserve its strength, the Shell and deck forms are supported by a series of fixed fixed beams, wood or steel, located in the transverse and longitudinal directions.
In the extremities the body is usually biterstrong rays: stern-akhterstvennem and nose-forte. Depending on the type of boat, the arc lines may be different. It depends on the reduction of resistance to the movement of a ship, its manoeuvrability and the protection of the sea.
The ship's underwater nose resistance Decreases, meaning that the ship's speed increases and fuel consumption is reduced. And in the icebreakers, the hull is inclined forward, because the ship is hovering over the ice and destroying it with mass.
The body of any vessel must have strong connections. Vertical, longitudinal and transverse directions to withstand water pressure, shock waves in any storm, and other forces that influence it.
The submerged parts of the ship are Basicload. Therefore, in the middle of the sub-cluster, the vertical spine is formed from the main longitudinal connection, which detects forces arising from the longitudinal bending of the vessel. It extends along the entire length of the body, connects to the trunk and aft part, and its design depends on the type of boat.
In parallel to the spine, the lower beams, their number depend on the size of the vessel, and the width of the base decreases to the spring and the bottom.
Generally, to reduce the impact of the lateral firing of the vessel, the side goats are mounted, they do not go beyond the size of the width and have a different design.
The vertical steel sheets, called the lower fluorine, are mounted along the trunk and are caused by the spine and can be permeable and imperimated.
The bead set continues to be the lower set, and the (long beams) and frames (transverse slates). Fstshteven is considered to be a zero frame in the construction of military ships and Midshipis in the middle chassis.
The deck set is a system that crosses the longitudinal and transverse beams-beams.
Shell of the ship
The shell of the vessel consists of an outer bottom or a coating and deck laying. The outer coating is made of horizontal individual straps, which are combined in different ways: vnacro, Butt, Tooth, Herringridge.
The underwater parts of the ship must be the most therefore, the strong (bottom) enclosure strap is thicker than the intermediate straps. The same thickness is also the area of the skin, called squirrels, on the beams of the upper continuous deck.
Deck flooring consists of the longest, based on the deck set and the sheets limiting the inner area of the vessel from above. The sheets are arranged as long sides along the boat. The smallest thickness of the Metal deck deck is 4 mm. Wooden flooring can be made from wood.
It is a collection of decks, sets and tiles.
The deck of the ship
At height, the hull of the vessel is divided into several support and platforms. The Platform is a deck that does not progress along the entire length of the ship, but only between a few compartments.
The deck is called according to the bottom, middle and top ship. The end parts of the ship (on the nose and aft side) beneath the lower deck pass through the platform, which is considered top to bottom.
Both decks and platforms depend on the size, purpose and design of the boat.
River vessels and hybrid vessels have a main or upper deck. The sea, for example, a cruise ship, or rather a cruise ship, three decks.
The large lake cruise ships have an intermediate deck, except the main deck that creates the spacer area.
A cruise ship may be significantly more than the deck. For example, there were four in the Titanic, stretching along the entire length of the ship, two platforms that did not reach the nose or stern, one was interrupted in the spring and one was right in front of the lining. The newest liner is the Royal Princess, nineteen decks.
The upper deck, also called the main deck, is either daAna, resistant to transverse pressures and the biggest pressures against the body's longitudinal bending. The deck of the ship is usually carried out in the center with a slight increase in the bow and stern and transverse direction, so that the remaining water on the deck flows more easily to the edges when the sea is in distress.
The upper decks of the deck superstructures are located along the entire width of the Ship. They form closed volumes used as office and residential areas. On board, the side walls are called superstructures that continue to ship. However, most of the rooms above the upper deck do not reach the sides. For this reason, there is a somewhat conditional division of the actual superstructures, which are placed in a fairly large length of the ship, as well as the superstructures, but short cuts.
The upper deck of the ship is divided into sites with names, the same names are given to the superstructures where they are: tank or spring, feed or swallow and environment. Semi-tank superstructure-designed to increase the body's publication.
The Tank can occupy up to 2/3 of the ship's length. In the extended tank, there are cabins in cargo-decks on cruise ships and cargo vessels.
In the hull superstructure-yute or half-deck-cargo ships, the living spaces for the team are organized.
Among the upper structures, the deck is covered with trenches, which must protect the decks from flooding with water.
On marine vessels, depending on the type and destination of the ship, logging is carried out in several layers.
On the riverboats wheel and radio and on the top deck all other facilities include a single room entrance call on-add-ons.
The nature of the structure of a military or civilian vessel implies the presence of waterproof compartments, which increases its self-smoking.
The inner vertical walls (curtains) are made waterproof, divided into compartements along the length of the inner volume of the vessel. In case of damage in the underwater part of the vessel and the spread of fire, they prevent the filling of all internal volume with water.
Depending on the target, the ship's compartment has its own names. The main power units are mounted in the compartment called the motor or engine room. The machine compartment of the boiler unit is separated by a waterproof septum. Cargos are transported in cargo compartments. Residential buildings for crew and passengers are called waiting for housing and passengers. The fuel is stored in the fuel compartment.
The rooms in the compartes are protected by light curtains. To get into the compartments, deck decks make rectangular caps. Dimensions vary according to the purpose of the panes.
Ship power unit
The power plant on the ship is not only the engine that activates the ship, but also the motor and auxiliary mechanisms that provide electricity.
On the move, the ship is driven by the propeller of the main motor, which is connected by the shaft line.
Auxiliary mechanisms provide electricity, desaled water and steam to the boat.
According to the principle of operation and the type of main engine, and Also power supplies, the ship's power plant can be steam or steam turbine, diesel, diesel turbine, gas turbine, nuclear or combined.
Ship devices and systems
The structure of the vessel is not only the hull and the upper structures, but also the ship's devices, special equipment and deck mechanisms that allow the ship to operate. Without a helmsman or anchor device, even people away from shipbuilding do not represent the ship. And every ship has a pull, anchor, boat, cargo device. They are all activated and served with deck auxiliary mechanisms including steering machines, traction, cargo and boat cranes, pumps and much more.
Ship systems are miles away from Tapompas, instruments and devices, or in the event of a waste water fire, the water is fed to drinking water or foam pumped, provided from them the pipe with heating, ventilation and air conditioning.
The engine room is a fuel system to provide engines to the mechanisms, air to feed compressed air, cooling motors are served.
With the help of electrical equipment, it is ensured that the ship's power plant and mechanisms and devices operate.
All modern vessels complicate the direction of movement (route) and determine the depth, measure the speed of movement and the navigational equipment to detect the obstacles on the fog or approaching ships. The external and internal communication on the ship is carried out with the help of radio-wave radio telephones, ship phone stations.
The ship's rooms
The ship's rooms are divided into several groups, though most ships are on board.
These are the living spaces for the crew (cabin of officers and sailor booths) and passengers (cabins with different capacities).
The cruise ship is very rare today. Very few people can afford to travel at low speed for long distances. You can make a significantly faster air flight. Therefore, passenger cabins-This is more of a cruise ship.
Passenger cabins are divided into several classes for convenience, especially on cruise ships. The simplest cabin looks like a compartment of a railroad vehicle equipped with artificial lighting, with four shelves and virtually no furniture, most of the time facing the inside of the enclosure and without window or window. And the Royal Princess Primer offers luxury two-room suites with balconies to passengers.
A cabin on a ship on a military ship is a room for the rest of the team's officers. The ship's commander and the senior officers have separate cabins.
Public spaces, halls, cinemas, restaurants, libraries. For example, the cruise ship of Oasis of the Seas has 20 restaurants on board, a real ice skating rink, a casino and a theatre for 1380 spectators, a nightclub, a jazz club and a disco.
Sanitary and economical facilities include hygienic and hygienic (washing, shower, bath, bath) and kitchen, household appliances with various warehouses and auxiliary rooms.
Access to passengers is usually available. This is the room where the ship's management or spare parts and other marine stocks are radio equipment, machine apartment, workshop, storage.
Special-purpose facilities include storage of cargo warehouses, solid or liquid fuels.
A sailboat's device is no different than an ordinary ship. Just sail, wounded and rigging.
Sailing Rig-A series of all sails of the ship. Wounds are the parts that carry the sail directly. These are the pillars, gardens, shelves, bows, geeks and other items we know from books about centuries of pirates.
The special gear is fixed to a specific position called the rigging, bows and twig, for example, a standing crest such as Shrens. Such equipment remains constant and is made from plant materials or galvanized iron or steel wire and in some places thick tar made from chains.
Carry out the moving gears and other operations related to the management of a sailboat called running Arma. These are sheets, corners and other items made of flexible steel, synthetic or hemp cables.
From all other angles, even on the deck, the sailboats look like their colleagues.
The multi-point sailing in XVı was seen in the century. Spanish galons can be 2 to 7 decks, depending on the displacement. The superstructure was built in several steps, where the crew and the passengers were living spaces for their officers.
The structure of the ship is set on the move with at least the constitutional elements, wind power, inflating of the savers or mobile liners with steam engines and a vapor engine, steam turbine assembly or atomic ice breakers Sailboats, not depending on the type and purpose of the ship.