10 most important shipwrecks in history

10 most important shipwrecks in history

The first shipwreck excavation in history was made in 1961, 53 years ago. Since then, thousands of new sunken have been discovered, each with their own stories. Each of the 10 shipwreck selected to represent the underwater archeology in the list of archaeophiles. com presents unique information about the life of the people they belong to and the lives of that period. The found shipwreck reveals how smart and creative our ancestors were when they were on the sea trips.

10. USS Monitor and H.L. Hunley (USA)

USS Monitor and H.L. Hunley (USA)

For the two ships that were lost in the American Civil War, long-time calls were made for the importance of American history. The Monitor was built in a 100-day rush to confront the Confederacy's ship, Virginia. They met in Virginia on March 1862, and this war brought the end of naval battles between wooden ships. With the rotating turret, Monitor was an engineering marvel, but it was evident 9 months later, when it sunk near Kuzay Carolina along with 16 crew members. But the small ship was not forgotten and continued to be searched by volunteers in 1973, until it was found at a depth of 70 meters. After the surveys and test excavations, the propelling, armored turret and engine were removed from the sea.

Hunley was one of the subways the two sides built. On February 17, 1864, he became the first submarine to sink another ship. Many search studies were performed until 1995. There were many studies on Hunley, excavated and removed in 2000, and life on the ship was almost revived. Contrary to forecasting, it was learned that it was a highly developed vessel.

The remains of the crew were found on both ships and researches were made on them. It is believed that the crew of the Hunley might have died after a war when he lowered the submarine to the sea base.

9. RMS Titanic (North Atlantic Ocean)

RMS Titanic (North Atlantic Ocean)

The biggest sea disaster in the last centuries! The ship, seen as an impenetrable engineering marvel, crashed into an iceberg and took 1500 of its 2200 passengers to the bottom of the sea. In 1985, an American-French partnership was released from the wreck to be exhibited in a public exhibition by a private company found in 5500. The discovery of the titanic aroused tremendous interest among archaeologists and explorers, and revealed that research and rescue work could be done in the depths of the ocean, which hosts many other important shipwreck ships. A scientific research conducted in 2012 aimed to remove a map of the wreck with robotic tools attached to marine radar and cameras. At the same time, high quality 3d documentation of the different parts of the fragmented ship was also made.

8. Mary Rose and Vasa (UK and Sweden)

Mary Rose and Vasa (UK and Sweden)

16. and 17. These two, very well preserved vessels from the century became the subject of extensive archaeological research. From the time the caravels emerged and the naval power increased, these vessels constitute an example of how the ships are used in the national expansion and influence-boosting policies. The two shipwreck also found weapons, food, personal belongings, navigational equipment and the crew's clothing and ruins.

Mary Rose, who was made in 1510 and entered the war in 1545, is the king of English 8. It was Henry's pride. The sea-floor excavations were found to be four floors on the starboard side of the ship 22,000 was uncovered. The body of Mary Rose, which was extracted from the water, shows how it was harmonised with technology over time. The ship, which was originally built like a floating fortress for short archery and short-range combat, was changed after the emergence of cannons. As a result of the changes, the upper part of the ship became heavier and was also a factor in capsizing.

Vasa's life ended with capsizing. The first time in 1628, he was at the bottom of the Stockholm harbour. The colossal and highly ornate ship carrying the 64 ball and an army was the pride of the Swedish king Gustavus Adolphus, who transformed his country into a world force. The ship was buried in the mud, and the well-preserved vessel was removed from the sea in 1961. Excavations in the sea floor and inside the ship revealed 25,000 finds, including the statues, which were once attached to the board of the 700. The finds include not only the ship-related parts, but also the personal belongings and skelets of men and women on the ship from the poor to the rich. Some of them were still found on their clothes and shoes. Vasa is still the largest ship excavated in the archaeological site.

BC Kyrenia (Cyprus)

Kyrenia (Cyprus)

This very well-preserved BC located on the north of Cyprus. 4. A century-long, 2300-year-old Greek merchant ship has provided important information about the classical Greek boats, which are also seen in paintings and ceramics.

Research is the ship that ships with four crews from Rhodes, BC. In 306, he revealed that he was sinking in a pirate attack. There were eight iron spearheads left in the hull of this attack. Thus, the Kyrenia shipwreck presented one of the first physical evidence of the pirates. After the conservation, a copy of the ship, which was exhibited in the museum, was floated in 1985.

6. Spanish Armadası (Scotland and Ireland)

Spanish Armadası (Scotland and Ireland)

King of Spain 2. The Spanish Armada, which Philip sent to England in 1588, is famous for its size and strength, as well as its defeat and almost complete destruction. While escaping from the brave pirates at the behest of Elizabeth, the Navy was about to be destroyed by the whippering of famous storms in the rocky British. From many sources and ports, the 130 ships and 30,000 military Armada would occupy England and Dethrone Elizabeth, bring back the Catholic monarchy, and end the Dutch revolt against the Spaniads. The Navy, consisting of large and small calyons and trade ships demanded from the Baltic and the Mediterranean, seemed unstoppable with a 2500 gun.

Fire vessels – the brave and decisive decisions of British capers who use tactics such as the ships that were set on fire and were released towards the enemy, were stopped by the attack. The British also had a superiority in terms of artillery. When he wanted to flee to Spain, in the words of Queen Elizabeth, "God breathed" and the Spanish Armadis caught in the storms. A third of the ships have been deboned by the sea and two-thirds of the troops found their graves on the shores of Scotland and Ireland.

The shipwreck, which was found by divers who wanted to find the riches of the Spanish nobles, initiated a long-term investigation. El Gran Grifon has provided information about shipwrecks, ship life and ships features such as San Juas de Sicilia, Girona, Santa Maria de la Rosa and LA Trinidad Valencera. Studies have revealed that insufficient preparations and hasties are the factors that prepare the end of Armada. Navigational equipment with mathematical inaccuracies and poorly spilled balls were signs of incompetence.

Researcher CM Martin, in Spain in 1492, after the deportation of Jews and Muslims, the population of mathematics and science, who understands the country's departure and mathematical mistakes emerged. On the other hand, each of the Spanish balls had his own special bullet. During the war, the crew dealt with the long and heavy artillery that needed to be transported on the one hand with the human power while searching for the right bullet in a pile of mixed bullets. The British had an easy-to-carry cannon and a sample shell that matched all the weapons. Archaeological studies revealed that when the British were throwing a fast-speed ball, the Spanish had responded to this fire with a slow, sometimes even snail speed. The Spanish had more balls, but they couldn't use them efficiently.

5. Kublai Khan's Navy (Japan)

Kublai Khan's Navy (Japan)

The largest naval invasion of history was the attack of the Mongolian, Chinese and Korean soldiers and sailors in Japan by order of the Emperor Kublai Khan in 1274 and 1281 years. According to legend, more than 100,000 troops on thousands of ships participated in 1281 attacks. The two attacks were part of Kublai Khan's plan to add Japan to the Mongolian empire, but failed both times. The Japanese legends and the narrative of Marko Polo connect this failure to a storm or wind sent from heaven to the Japanese prayers. This is the name of the Wind "kamikaze" later in Japan's 2nd. They were given to suicide planes in World War II.

Since the 1980s, it has uncovered surface surveys and excavations, weapons, armour, vessels for runners, personal belongings and parts of some vessels. Research on Chinese warships has shown that they are much more advanced than modern European vessels in terms of construction and technology. As a result of the excavations, the oldest bombs in the sea were found, consisting of a catapsed, and a ceramic bucket filled with metal shrapnel and gunpowder. Archaeological research has also made great contributions to a small number of information about Japanese defence and victory. The finds were fire vessels – the small ships that were set on fire and were released towards the enemy – and presented evidence of collisions on the deck, such as war on the chest. These collisions kept the navy off shore until a seasonal typhoon destroyed the ships.

The excavations also revealed that the ships were rushed to war, and some were not in a very good condition, since some were built in a hurry, and some of them were from war conditions. Unsatisfactory preparations and long-lasting siege have caused a defeat when the time is now full and the storm arrives. These archaeological efforts not only prove the reality of a myth, but also illuminates naval warfare techniques in Asia during this period.

4. Bajo de la Campana (Spain)

Bajo de la Campana (Spain)

The Bajo de la Campana ship, which was sunk 2700 years ago on the shores of the city of Cartagena in Spain, was the first Phoenician ship excavated by archaeologists. When the ship landed, some of its cargo was poured into the sea floor and gathered in a sea cave. Along with parts of the hull of the ship, many pottery and bronze finds, pine nuts, amber, ivory and lead ore remains uncovered. The names of their owners in the Phoenician language were written on their ivory. The Bajo de la Campana ship was probably a merchant ship from the eastern Mediterranean to the west, to Cadiz to find the goods. Most of its burden was raw materials such as lead ore and ivory, which the crew acquired through trade from the locals living in this part of Spain. The ongoing analysis points to the presence of a highly developed maritime network and the cultures of maritime trade, as the ships of Gelidonya and Uluburun are still continuing. It also reveals how the trade empires evolved, especially the Phoenicia. The Phoenicians later began to reign in the Western Mediterranean, formed colonies such as Cartago Nuovo, and eventually collapsed with the increasingly strong Rome.

3. Yenikapı (Turkey)

Yenikapı (Turkey)

The largest Byzantine shipbuilding in history, located a few years ago in Istanbul. The Marmaray station excavation, which started in 2004, revealed many layers from the Neolithic period to the Ottoman Empire, which depicted the Byzantine period's port wall, 34 ships and human settlements. Among the thousands of finds that have surfaced, there are skeletons of giants brought from Africa to draw stones in wooden combs, amphora-laden cargo and port construction. The age of the shipwreck is BC. 4. Century and MS. It changes between 11 centuries.

In different styles, which are very well preserved until today, there are Byzantine merchant ships, fishing boats and four-row Avaş ships known as the previously unseen Galea. The excavations carried out by the Istanbul University and the Maritime Archaeology Institute are over, but it seems that the restoration, conservation, analysis will take tens of years. Researchers emphasise that these shipwreck in Yenikapı is the most important area for us to understand the Byzantine vessels in depth. Prior to Yenikapı, the information on the Byzantine vessels was limited to several different areas. One of these areas was the Sparrow Harbour, which is located on the Turkish coast.

2. Skuldelev Ships (Denmark)

Skuldelev Ships (Denmark)

A group of 11. The Viking ship of the century was removed from the shallow waters on the shores of the former capital of Roskilde, Denmark, which started in 1962 and still works. Ranging from ordinary freighters to battleships, the group was filled with stones to shut down a sea canal against invaders. Finds, analyses and reconstructions have allowed us to see the different Viking ships that have been in the sea for the first time. Previously, only the noble tombs of the nobles had been found. The Viking aristocrats were buried in ships, on land, in ornate ships.

Skuldelev ships have demonstrated the presence of advanced shipbuilding techniques and extensive specialization. The discovery also helped to capsize the Viking ship's blood, which was a stereotesed large and dragon bow, with shields placed on its edge. After the discovery, the Vikings grew interest in the trade relations, discoveries and dominions of the sea. After Skuldelev, the finds in old Viking ports like Dublin rewrote the history of the Viking maritime.

1. Uluburun and Cape Gelidonya (Turkey)

Uluburun and Cape Gelidonya (Turkey)

These two ships, the oldest shipwrecks excavated on Earth, were found on the Bronze Age ship, along with their cargo, in Antalya. The Gelidonya wreck, excavated in 1960, was the first shipwreck to be completely extracted from the sea floor. The ship dated to 3200 years ago was the property of a mobile blacksmith from Cyprus or Syria. More than a ton of bullion, scrap copper tools, weapons, metal making materials and other similar finds were removed from the wreck.

The findings convinced George Bass, the first excavation president, known as the father of underwater archaeology, did not dominate the Mediterranean trade with the Mikenians. Greek-based objects in several territorial settlements had given the view that the Mikenans dominated the Mediterranean trade, but George Bass was more likely to manage the ancient seas and trade of the Middle Eastern sailors or proto-Phoenicia. Thought.

This thesis was born from the discovery of the shipwreck of Uluburun, which was excavated between 1984-1994 and 2002. Uluburun shipwreck was dated to the oldest, 3330 years ago. The ship, Kenan or Cypriot, was carrying a wide range of raw materials and luxury items from the Baltic Sea to equatorial Africa, from the Mediterranean to the Middle East from 11 other ancient cultures. As a result of rigorous studies, fragments of the body of the oldest wreck were found.

The ongoing research of excavation head Cemal Pulak proves the thesis of Bas and points to the presence of a complex and highly developed maritime trade network, which was dominated by proto-Phoenicia three thousand years ago.

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